Music of India
India: General Information
Religion in India
History & Politics
Music--General comparison with the "west"
Musical Differences between North and South India
CD #2, Track 20; Text p. 250-253
North Indian Music
Aesthetics of Music--North India
Listening Example #1--Rig Veda Hymn
RAG or RAGA FORM
Rag or Raga
Determinants of a Rag
Tal or Tala - Rhythmic Cycle
Parts of the Rag Form
Vocal As Melody
Dhol Cholam - Drum Dance from Manipur
India Group #1--items to know from their presentation
--from 5:30 or 6:30 until around midnight (used to go all night!)
--audience sits on floor
--audienced will make comments and show appreciation during the performance
--informal; no program, audience moves around during performance, converse, keep time, etc.
(large clay pot)
--kanjira (tambourine; snake-skin top)
--mridangam (2 headed drum)
Carnatic Music Performance
by India group #2
of the Day
What is Kriti and what is its significance?
Question of the Day
Kriti is the centerpiece of Carnatic music. It contains the composed melodic theme which is returned to repeatedly throughout the composition.
--Carnatic music is the classical music of South India.
--Carnatic music is comprised of several different musical components:
Raga- melodic system
Tala- time organization
Alapana and Tanam- the first 2 sections of performance
Kriti- the composed melodic theme for the performance
Kalpana Svaras- improvised section of kriti
Tani Avartanam- the drum solo
The Time Cycle
--The organization of time in music
--Only 5 talas are currently in common practice:
(Khanda) Chapu tala
Misra Chapu tala
--The Mridangam player and other percussionists improvise rhythms from previously learned rhythms and beats.
--Percussionists learn 15 different strokes with coordinating sollukattus (spoken syllables).
--The kriti is one of the compositions that the percussionist must accompany.
--The accompaniment is of highly complex structure due to formulaic entrances and precise rhythmic patterns.
--Tani Avartanam is the high point of performance for percussionists which will be discussed later.
--“Free-flowing exposition and exploration of the raga”
--phrases begin slowly and of low pitch, and gradually increase in speed and pitch, until a peak is reached, when a descent in pitch and speed occurs, returning the composition to a home tone (sa).
--This section is of raga derived from the Kriti.
CD #3, Track #1 0:00- 3:15
--“A highly rhythmic exposition of the raga.”
--No tala cycles, but a strong sense of beat
--Like the Alapana, the Tanam adheres to the ascending and descending pitch and rhythm pattern.
CD #3, Track #1 3:20-8:15
Melodic theme of Carnatic music performance
--Flexible in structure
--An oral tradition
--Partially pre-composed, partially improvised
--Idam, the opening phrase of the Kriti, is the recurring melodic theme in Carnatic composition
CD #3, Track #1 8:25-15:45
--An improvised part following the kriti
--Improvisations grow in length and complexity, and gradually the section comes to a climax and returns to idam.
--A featured drum solo after the performance of the kriti
--Gives percussionist(s) ability to display talent and imagination
--The solo ends with the idam, bringing the performance to closure
--Distinguishes South from North India by its creative character
--Because of technology and expanded global awareness, many cultures are integrating sounds and styles from other musical traditions.
--“Love you to” – The Beatles
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